thunbergia fragrans medicinal uses
Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. 79 pp. Species within this family are herbs or woody shrubs, lianas and trees (Stevens, 2012). Beautés fatales: Acanthaceae species as invasive alien plants on tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Figure 4: Thunbergia fragrans. var. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 80 pp. T. fragrans was probably introduced as an ornamental in the Caribbean during the nineteenth century. Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. It is a fast-growing vine which has been intentionally introduced as an ornamental in many tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions where it has escaped and naturalized becoming a serious threat for native plant communities (Starr et al., 2003; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004). Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). 1). Daniel TF, 2010. Seeds for sale starting at â¬ 5.40. 80 pp. ), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp. Technical paper No. These three species can be distinguished by the following vegetative and reproductive characters (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011): Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. These species can be distinguished by the following differences: Fact sheets are available from Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI) service centres and our Customer Service Centre (telephone 13 25 23). Catalog of Guatemalan Acanthaceae: taxonomy, ecology, and conservation. Hancock I R, Henderson C P, 1988. Thunbergia fragrans . Thunbergia fragrans C.Presl Thunbergia fragrans Wall. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf. The mobile application of Environmental Weeds of Australia is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. it is a human commensal), Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately. Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Thunbergia fragrans (Chimine) in Talakona forest, AP W IMG 8508.jpg 481 × 600; 136 KB Thunbergia fragrans 01.JPG 3,076 × 1,924; 1.11 MB Thunbergia fragrans 02.JPG 3,648 × 2,600; 1.74 MB Daniel TF, 2010. In addition, seeds are available from nurseries on the internet. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. quadrangular) and somewhat hairy (i.e. Distinguishing features. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. its distinctive fruit capsule is topped with a long, thick, beak. Kew Bulletin, 55:513-589. All plants segments and roots have to be removed in order to avoid re-sprouts. The risk of introduction of T. fragrans is very high. Key words: Thunbergia, Distribution, Traditional uses, Assam INTRODUCTION Thunbergia named in 1780 by Retzius, in the honours of Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828), a Invasive weedy angiosperms in Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 107:1-3348. Brit. petioles) about 4 cm long. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Hokche O, Berry PE, Huber O, 2008. Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive Plant Species on Niue following Cyclone Heta., 76 pp. [English title not available]. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora. Western Australia: Prohibited - on the prohibited species list and not permitted entry into the state. Wu & H.S. Dispersal of this species is usually facilitated by it being grown in gardens (i.e. Flowers trumpet-shaped, corolla white to about 7 cm long. This shrub has small, ovate leaves with entire margins borne opposite on thin, brown stems. Scotland RW; Vollesen K, 2000. characteristic features. Proceedings of the California Academy of Science, 61:289-377. Space JC; Flynn T, 2001. In Hawaii, T. fragrans was first collected on Kaua'i in 1916 (Wagner et al. In most cases, this species has been intentionally introduced as an ornamental and it has escaped from cultivation and naturalized in both relatively unaltered and disturbed forests, riversides, roadsides and urban bushland (Starr et al., 2003; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). Mona, Jamaica: University of the West Indies. pubescent) when young. Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. 51-108. by Breedlove DE]. Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press. Wu TL, 2001. Daniel TF, 1995. Diversity and Distributions, 10(5/6):333-347. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. 10 (5/6), 333-347. It is most commonly found on roadsides, but can spread into forests and scrub. Catalog of Guatemalan Acanthaceae: taxonomy, ecology, and conservation. Chong KY, Tan HTW, Corlett RT, 2009. According to Brickell and Zuk (1997), Thunbergia species are susceptible to spider mites, whiteflies, and scale insects. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. Copyright Â© 2016. Capsules 1-2.5 cm long, depressed-globose at the base, the upper half in the form of a beak, dehiscent in two halves; seeds 4, globose, approximately 5 mm in diameter, pubescent, with a depression at the base (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). USDA-ARS, 2014. Lo) H.P. Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ; Marticorena C; Marchesi E, 2008. An excellent book, giving information on over 200 plants, their medicinal compounds and applications. ect. 6 (Special Issue No. The genus Thunbergia includes about 90 species of ... 2012). Barbados: University of the West Indies. ACANTHACEAE whitelady. Fragrant thunbergia (Thunbergia fragrans) is widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions for its attractive white flowers. hastate) bases. Fragrant thunbergia (Thunbergia fragrans) is regarded as a potentially significant environmental weed in Queensland. Uses Cultivation. crenate), or almost entire (i.e. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html, PROTA, 2014. These restrictions may prevent the use of one or more of the methods referred to, depending on individual circumstances. General Information Black-eyed Susan is a climbing, perennial plant producing one or more annual stems from a woody rootstock. Adams CD, 1972. All rights reserved. The species T. alata, T.fragrans, and T. laurifolia have also been described as invasive species in ... and is commonly planted to cover fences and walls in gardens in warm climates. In Australia, T. fragrans is considered a species of “recent introduction” and by the year 2011 this species had been recorded at several locations in the coastal districts of eastern Queensland (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). PIER, 2014. 860 pp. Space JC; Flynn T, 2002. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf. its white tubular flowers (about 5 cm across) are subtended by two leafy bracts (13-15 mm long). Online Database. Propagation is from stem cuttings or shoots from the tuberous roots. Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. Statistics. It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and now it is cultivated and naturalized in North, Central and South America, the Caribbean and on many islands in the Indian and Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details; Daniel, 1995, 2001, 2005; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp. the Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, Hawaii, Niue, Western Samoa, Vanuata and Tonga). Diversity and Distributions, 10(2):113-123. Considering that T. fragrans spreads sexually by seeds and vegetatively by cuttings, stem fragments, and roots, the likelihood of invading and colonizing new habitats remains high. Micronesica Supplement, 6:61-65. http://plants.usda.gov/. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, CABI, Undated. India Biodiversity, 2014. [English title not available]. Tropical ornamentals. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Urban listed this species as “spontaneous” for the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, St. Thomas, St. Croix, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Vincent, Barbados and Trinidad in his Symbolae Antillanae. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x. It is recorded in the US National Herbarium from collections made in 1845 on St Thomas Island (US Virgin Islands), in 1874 in Trinidad, and in 1885 in Puerto Rico. 2. Borg AJ; McDade LA; Schönenberger J, 2008. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp. Variation in the shape, size, pubescence, and margin form of the leaves is extensive in T. fragrans, and taxa have been recognized based on these characters (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). The slender, green or reddish coloured stems are square in cross-section (i.e. leaf and mature fruit (Photo: Land Protection, QDNRW) almost entire leaves (Photo: Sheldon Navie) Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 24:51-108. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Leaves opposite, more or less triangular. Brickell C; Zuk JD, 1997. ovate) or somewhat elongated (i.e. a vine or creeper with slender four-angled stems that are somewhat hairy when young. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/. Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. Figure 5: Thunbergia grandiflora. Classification of Acanthaceae. They have margins that vary from being slightly lobed, to toothed (i.e. In China, T. fragrans has been recorded flowering from August to January and fruiting from November to March (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list. 209, Noumea, New Caledonia, South Pacific Commission. The fruit is an almost-rounded (i.e. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. Kauai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. Daniel TF, 2005. Flowering occurs throughout the year, but mostly during summer and autumn. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station. In: Global Environmental Research, 8 (2) 171-191. Seeds and plant fragments can be spread in dumped garden waste, and by water, soil movement, garden tools, and vehicles (Starr et al., 2003; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). The alien flowering plants of Mexico. In: 4. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay)). McDade LA; Masta SE; Moody ML; Waters E, 2000. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. Volume 2. T. fragrans is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where is listed as an “environmental weed,” and it is also listed as invasive in Australia, Japan, Singapore, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii and French Polynesia among others (Meyer and Lavergne, 2004; Mito and Uesugi, 2004; Chong et al., 2009; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2014). It is a long-blooming vine in cultivation. While every care is taken to ensure the accuracy of this information, DEEDI does not invite reliance upon it, nor accept responsibility for any loss or damage caused by actions based on it. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/niue_report_20041217.pdf, Starr F; Starr K; Loope LL, 2003. Species in the genus Thunbergia have bisexual, zygomorphic, axillary, and usually solitary flowers (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Thunbergia fragrans. How Thunbergia Grandiflora is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The white, tubular flowers (4-6 cm across) are borne singly or in pairs on stalks (i.e. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. The use of this species as an ornamental should be discouraged (Starr et al., 2003; Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2011). Thunbergia laurifolia is a popular ornamental plant in tropical gardens. This species is declared under legislation in the following states and territories: For information on the management of this species see the following resources: Fragrant thunbergia (Thunbergia fragrans) is relatively similar to blue trumpet vine (Thunbergia grandiflora), laurel clock vine (Thunbergia laurifolia) and black-eyed Susan (Thunbergia alata), and very similar to native thunbergia (Thunbergia arnhemica). It is regarded as a potentially significant environmental weed in Queensland (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). Stem and leaves . In Jamaica and Puerto Rico, this species has been recorded flowering and fruiting throughout the year (Adams, 1972; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). The slender, green or reddish coloured stems are square in cross-section (i.e. [Invasive species and their management.]. Efloraofindia (earlier Indiantreepix) is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. Stems cylindrical, striate, slender, puberulous. Furthermore, Thunbergioideae lack the retinaculate fruits found in most Acanthaceae species, instead possessing either dry and/or dehiscent capsules without retinacula (Borg et al., 2008). National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. vestita Nees. Native to the Indian Sub-continent (i.e. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. peduncles) emanating from the leaf forks (i.e. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. 1-158. Robust vine. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. sub-entire). White thunbergia is not a prohibited or restricted invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014, however everyone has a general biosecurity obligation (GBO) to take reasonable and practical steps to minimise the risks associated with invasive plants and animals under their control. 1999). Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Flora of China. In: Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 107 1-3348. Thunbergia fragrans is a cold tender species in most of the Coastal Southeast. Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Teas and medicinal Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka), south-eastern Asia (i.e. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. For documenting flora of India that is being discussed on efloraofindia google e-group along with supplementing the working of the group. corolla lobes). 4. Flowering plants of Jamaica. In many places it is considered as an invasive species. Compendium record. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Names of Thunbergia Grandiflora in various languages of the world are also given. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer J-Y, 2013. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay).) Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Duration: Perennial Growth Habit: Vine Hawaii Native Status: Introduced. 1), 22-96. riparian areas), urban bushland, disturbed sites, roadsides and plantation crops in tropical and sub-tropical regions. In: Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). English name(s): White Thunbergia, Thunbergia White gem Description: Climber, scabrous. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Scientific Name: Thunbergia fragrans Synonym: Thunbergia volubilis Common Names: White Lady, Whitelady, White Thunbergia, Sweet Clock-vine, White Clock-vine Plant Characteristics. Swarbrick JT, 1997. Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji. T. fragrans grows best on fertile soils with good drainage and pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.8 (PROTA, 2014).