sabre fencing techniques
Imagine, however, things go slowly, and after three minutes the total score is 8-6. Consequently, even though there are limitations and controversy over electronic scoring, and despite its rejection by the classical fencers, electronic scoring is by far the dominant method used to determine if touches land. Notify me of follow-up comments by email. As described in an article in the London newspaper, The Daily Courier, on June 25, 1896: "Every one who has watched a bout with the foils knows that the task of judging the hits is with a pair of amateurs difficult enough, and with a well-matched pair of maîtres d’escrime well-nigh impossible." Once the table size has been chosen, fencers are slotted into the table like this: first place vs. last place, second vs. second last, third vs. third last etc. The winner carries on in the tournament, and loser is eliminated. This guide to fencing includes over 100 action photographs, demonstration sequences, and line drawings to help the reader put its advice into practice. Review the video and determine what improvements should be made. You are free to copy, translate, change, sell – whatever you want. Competitive fencers are very much intertwined with their coaches. How to Improve Your Fencing. In foil and sabre, despite the presence of all the gadgetry, it is still the referee's job to analyze the phrase and, in the case of simultaneous hits, to determine which fencer had the right of way. ALWAYS talk to your fencing coach before starting any home practice routine, as you could find yourself reinforcing bad techniques. Stop the ball each time you reset the drill. Épée fencing was later conducted with red dye on the tip, easily seen on the white uniform. There are rarely exactly the right number of people for this to work out perfectly, so the lowest ranking fencers may be eliminated, or they may be included in the next highest power of 2 with the top fencers receiving a bye. The referee will write down how many points each fencer scored in the bout, although normally if a fencer won with five points a "V" (for victoire) is written down instead of a 5. Use footwork drills that have the blessing of your coach. Footwork is the basis of fencing, and it’s important for fencers to practice footwork with regularity. Start off slow to ensure proper form – quality over quantity. When any of the judges thinks they saw a hit, that judge raises their hand. Fencing techniques are the physical actions of fencing which include footwork and blade work coupled with a sense of distance and timing. Under current FIE rules, a fencer may ask for two side-judges (one to watch each fencer) if they think that the referee is failing to notice some infringement of the rules on their opponent's part such as use of the unarmed hand, substitution of the valid target area, breaching the boundary of the piste etc. A fencers place is decided by three factors: their victories divided by matches fenced, their indicator score, which is calculated by the numbers of hits for and against during the pool rounds, and finally their hits scored. There are two en-garde lines (where the fencers stand at the beginning of the bout) two metres (6.6 ft) either side of the midpoint. The cutout time is the maximum time allowed by the box between two hits registering as simultaneous (if this time is exceeded, only one light will appear). The nine classical parries comprise basic bladework. Finally the referee will call "Fence! A tournament may comprise all three weapons, both individual and team, or it may be very specific, such as an Épée Challenge, with individual épée only. There are, however, still traditionalists within the fencing community who have fundamental objections to the practice (discussed later on in this section). This proposal is due to be reviewed at the 2007 FIE Congress. Offenses are broken down into four groups, and penalties are assessed based upon the group of the offense. This has improved matters but not eradicated the problem altogether. Buy Fencing: Techniques of Foil, Epee & Sabre: Techniques of Foil, Epee and Sabre Illustrated by Pitman, Brian (ISBN: 9781852231521) from Amazon's Book Store. The rules for ties are explained above under Protocol. Fencing tournaments are varied in their format, and there are both individual and team competitions. Pool bouts are three minutes long, and are fenced to five points. The blade of the Fencing Sabre is made out of steel and is rectangular. All of us carry little video cameras in our pockets these days – it’s time to use them to help your fencing improve! Review video of fencing matches – keep it in short batches, focusing on specific things to improve.  They are now in the on-guard (en garde) position. The correct fencing stance is as follows: The correct position involves pointing the front foot straight forward, with the back foot at a 90 degree angle to it. A Fencing Sabre is used by Fencing players to score with both the cutting edge and back of the blade, as opposed to only using the tip like the other Fencing weapons. To interrupt the bout the referee calls "Halt!" In fact, the disputes over the flick grew so bitter that a number of traditionalists advocated (and still continue to advocate) complete abandonment of electronic scoring as something detrimental to fencing as an art. Talk to your coach about other home drills to address issues you find in your fencing competition videos. It’s often impossible to see problem areas when you’re looking in a mirror – there’s simply too much going on! Fencing practice and techniques of modern competitive fencing are governed by the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime (FIE), though they developed from conventions developed in 18th- and 19th-century Europe to govern fencing as a martial art and a gentlemanly pursuit. Everything you find on the AFM blog is free from copyright. The Fencing Sabre also has a guard that provides protection. Group 2 offenses include actions that are vindictive or violent in nature, or the failure to report to the strip with proper inspection marks on equipment. an any unbroken chain of recognizable offensive and defensive actions, such as lunging or parrying performed by the two fencers. This page was last edited on 25 September 2020, at 08:14. The opposing team must be alerted of this substitution at least one round before it happens. Between the halts of the director, judges would inspect each fencer for any red marks. This sword lessons book offers both detailed technical and historical views In contemporary sport fencing defense by footwork usually takes the shape of moving either directly away from your opponent or directly towards him/her. In the pools, fencers are divided into groups, and every fencer in a pool will have the chance to fence every other fencer once. Learning point control is a critical part of improving fencing technique. The sooner you can review video of your performance following a competition, the better. 3D targets are also effective for foil flick practice – and preferable to beating on your clubmate when you land flat. or, if both fencers are female, "En garde! The smaller the ball, the more challenging the drill will be. Fencing: Techniques of Foil, Epee & Sabre: Techniques of Foil, Epee and Sabre By crowood-press-uk 9.0 View Product 9.0 5 Cold Steel: The Art of Fencing with the Sabre … In foil and sabre, because of the need to distinguish on-target hits from off-target ones, special conductive clothing and wires must be worn. Some fencers, particularly in sabre, would hit hard to ensure their touches could not be missed, and dry sabre could be an extremely painful undertaking despite the protective jackets. This procedure is repeated until either one of the fencers has reached the required number of points (generally, 1, 5, or 15, depending on the format of the bout) or until the time allowed for the bout runs out. A fencer penalized with a black card is excluded from the competition, and may be excluded from the tournament, expelled from the venue, or suspended from future tournaments in the case of serious offenses. If the fencers were within lunging distance when the bout was interrupted and they are not required to return to their en-garde lines, the referee will ask both fencers to give sufficient ground to ensure a fair start. The following have been reported: Having said that, every one of the above claims is a subject of dispute. Record movements for less than one minute (longer and you won’t be able to get the detail of your movement). The first group 1 offense committed by a fencer in a bout is penalized with a yellow card. We know that actual fencers are a moving target, but working with a still target is still a great place to start for both form and accuracy. The phrase ends, when a referee has reason to stop the bout, such as corps a corps (the action of two fencers coming into physical contact with one another with any portion of their bodies or hilts), a hit (on or off-target), or a penalty, or when both fencers return to passivity. The footwork drills that you do at the club are perfect to do at home. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Prêtes? If you’re not getting video of your performance in fencing competition, then you’re missing out on one of the best methods for improving your performance. This is a source for British Military Swordsmanship in the Napoleonic era, contemporary with Angelo and Roworth. In all three weapons, the match goes until 15 points. The only way to remove it was through certain acids such as vinegar. Implement the home drills that your coach advises. Even in the best of circumstances, it was very difficult to accurately score hits, and it systematically under-reported valid touches to hard-to-see areas, such as the back or flank under the arm. Jun 9, 2015 - Explore Hope Brown's board "SABRE FENCING SWORDS", followed by 397 people on Pinterest. Working on fencing at home is a great idea, but only when done under the supervision of an experienced fencing coach. Ten minutes of footwork practice with a mirror every day for intermediate fencers and beyond supports growth in fencing. Tactics are very important to playing well in modern fencing and although technique is important in the sport, using an array of tactics will help fencers make the most of that technique. In this drill, the fencer is going to practice drawing small circles with the tip of the blade. Prêts? A fencer penalized with a red card is warned, and a touch is awarded to his/her opponent. Under these rules, the teams were still three members each, and still consisted of nine matches round-robin tournament style. Instead, two bronze medals are given to the losers of the semi-final round. Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. Allez!" These rules were adopted in the 18th century as part of teaching practice. As it is easily defended against, fencers often use numerous feints to deceive their opponent into parrying and then disengage around the blade. It’s a powerful technique! If a point has been awarded, then the competitors return to their en-garde lines; if not, they remain approximately where they were when the bout was interrupted. Tie your yard or twine to the ball of your choice. A fourth fencer can be allowed on the team as an alternate, but as soon as the fourth has been subbed in, they cannot leave again. has a maximum weight of 500 grams and is a thrusting weapon. The point isn’t to have a fancy target – it’s to put the time in practicing. The use of "fence" is contrary to the rules in certain countries.). The fencers from opposing teams will each fence each other once, making for a total of nine matches. A final major consideration is space. If there is no way of separating the fencers beyond these three indicators, then they are considered equal and draw random lots for their place in the table. While sabre almost inevitably goes to 45, it is not unusual to see an épée score in the mid to low thirties. The risk of both duellists charging onto one another's swords is kept to a minimum. In 2004-2005 the FIE brought in rule changes to address such concerns. When both fencers hit more or less simultaneously, only the fencer who had priority receives the point. Off-target hits are not registered at all in sabre. This means that, so far as human perception is concerned, the hits really do need to arrive at the same instant. If no one has reached 15 points, then the fencer with the most points wins. At present,[timeframe?] If no fencer reaches five points, then the one with the most points after three minutes wins. The president (referee or director) then stops the bout and reviews the relevant phases of the action, polling the judges at each stage to determine whether there was a touch, and (in foil and sabre) whether the touch was valid or invalid. That’s because reviewing older competition footage is showing you how you used to fence – not how you fence right now. The fencers put on their masks and adopt the fencing stance with the front foot behind the en-garde line and, in foil, with the blade in the sixte line. One thing that we do want to emphasize here is that many of these skills are NOT good to practice at home for beginners. In this system, which eliminates the spool (by using the fencer's own body as a grounding point), the lights and detectors are mounted directly on the fencers' masks. Set of protocols and behaviors used in competititve fencing, Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, United States Fencing Association Rules for Competition, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fencing_rules&oldid=980220285, Articles lacking in-text citations from September 2018, Articles that may contain original research from September 2018, All articles that may contain original research, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2009, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from September 2014, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from September 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The referee will then restart the bout as before. And of course you can purchase relatively inexpensive targets from your regular fencing gear supplier. Double lights are a frequent occurrence, making refereeing difficult. Attach your hook to the ceiling per the instructions included, or whatever other hanging method you’ve chosen. Team tournaments sometimes use pools and elimination rounds, although given the possible length of a team match (often a half-hour each), this is not so common, and they usually begin in a direct elimination format. Black cards are rarely given to a fencer, though. . A large open space is a critical part of home fencing practice. Various apocryphal stories about the origin of the salute circulate, like gladiators saluting each other in the arena, crusaders pointing their sword heavenward in pre-battle prayer, duellists showing each other that their swords are the same length, etc. Team competition involves teams of three fencers. Keep in mind that sabre can use the blade as well as the tip to score points, which means that a 3D target is a better option than a flat target, allowing fencers to strike just as they would in a match. A practice dummy can be useful – you can find these through martial arts suppliers. There are many variations of the salute, including some fairly theatrical ones, but the common theme is that the fencer stands upright, mask off, facing whomever he/she/they is saluting and raises his/her sword to a vertical position with the guard either at or just below face level, and then lowers it again. Practice drawing circles around the cards in the air with the tip of the sword. Drill sword control by thrusting towards the ball and hitting it with your sword. Fencing is slightly unusual in that no one has to fence for third place. The other serious problem in sabre (universally acknowledged as a problem) is that of "whip-over." based on how many people are competing. Retreating off of the strip scores a touch for the opponent. The exception to this is team events at international level, and individual events at the Olympic Games where a 3rd place play-off must be fenced. Therefore, in sabre, when one fencer reaches 8 points, there is a one-minute break. Offensive bladework consists of the various means of scoring a touch on an opponent. For example, lets imagine that Fencer A from Team 1 and Fencer X from Team 2 finish their first bout at 5-3. How about exciting fencing topics like rules, qualification paths, cool tips from and for fencing parents, free ebooks, and more? The judges answer "Yes", "Yes, but off-target" (in foil and sabre), "No", or "Abstain". One of the most talked about has been the registration of glancing hits in foil. Losing a pool match does not eliminate a fencer from the tournament. Despite the problems mentioned in the section on electronic scoring, the vast majority of fencers consider it a great improvement over non-electric system described here. There are some great techniques Attack -Also known as a thrust, it's the simplest of fencing techniques, where the fencer stretches his arm to attempt a hit on the valid target area on their opponent's body. I have a question, I am 5.3 feet tall, how high should I hang up my at home target? Your email address will not be published. At least in principle, in a prolonged phrase, the initiative passes smoothly from one fencer to the other, and back again, and so on. If you want to get started in the sport of fencing, go to the related wikiHow "Learn To Fence". This article targets fencers at the beginning and intermediate levels (though it focuses mostly on A fourth discipline, singlestick, appeared in the 1904 Olympics but was dropped after that, and is not a part of modern fencing. The dwell time (the length of time the point has to remain depressed in order to register a hit) was increased from 1 millisecond to 15 milliseconds. The size and number of the pools is determined by the number of athletes who have registered for the competition. The feet should be around 91cm (3ft) apart. This is the start of a phrase i.e. A fencer penalized with a yellow card is warned, but no other action is taken. In foil, the hit must land on the opponent's lame to be considered on-target. While it has not eliminated the flick altogether, it has made it technically trickier thereby denting its popularity. The weapons There are three fencing blades used in Olympic fencing - the foil, épée and sabre - each of which have different compositions, techniques and scoring target areas.The foil has a maximum weight of 500 grams and is a thrusting weapon. It is possible to execute a long marching attack with only a hint of an arm extension, clearly inviting an attack on preparation, which is then followed by a delayed trompment. Generally, an individual event consists of two parts: the pools, and the direct eliminations. If the score is tied when time runs out then the director determines priority randomly. (In some circles, beginning the bout with the order "fence" is deemed incorrect, but in others the use of "play" is discouraged due to the phonetic similarity with the French "prêts". Allez!" Parries are named for the line that they defend from attack: parry four would defend line four, which is the high inside line. They will be fencing to 10 points, but Fencer B starts at 5, and Fencer Y starts at 3, right where their teammates left them. The central component of the scoring system is commonly known as "the box". And, as in many sports, men and women compete separately. In some tournaments, there are two rounds of pools, with the second round following the same format, but with pools of different fencers. A garage is an ideal space – you can set up a home fencing practice area with everything you need. For example, if you want to work on your lunge, the exercise will simulate the movement The movement of the ball means that this drill is much more challenging than a still object drill. Teams are not aware of the order their opponents will be fencing in, although the sheet is designed so that no two athletes will fence each other twice. in English), a bout may be interrupted for several reasons: a touch has been made, the rules have been breached, the situation is unsafe, or the action has become so disorganized that the referee can no longer follow it. In the case of foil and épée, hits are registered by depressing a small push-button on the end of the blade. Fencing is a group of three related combat sports. Working footwork for a few minutes every day can be incredibly helpful for fencers. "Electric" fencing has not been without its problems. Once one was found, it was circled in a dark pencil to show that it had already been counted. Fencing practice and techniques of modern competitive fencing are governed by the Fédération Internationale d'Escrime (FIE), though they developed from conventions developed in 18th- and 19th-century Europe to govern fencing as a martial art and a gentlemanly pursuit. A common way of establishing the correct distance is to ask both fencers to straighten their arms and to step back to the point where their blades no longer overlap in the referee's view. Though still target practice is wonderfully effective, moving target practice offers a whole nother dimension for fencing practice at home. Fencing Familiarized, 1805, by Thomas Mathewson. This sounds really simple, but simple is effective! Want to stay on top of all things fencing? Judging is often done in French, in which case the referee will say "En garde! Sabre matches are so much faster that the three-minute mark is almost never reached. The first international competitions to use the reel-less versions of these weapons were held in 2006.. All group 2 offenses are penalized with a red card. Fencers are constantly maneuvering in and out of each other's range, accelerating, decelerating, changing directions and so on. Although neither fencer reached the limit of 10 total points for this match, the next pair to fence will still be able to go as high as 15. This system is sometimes called "dry" fencing (USA) or "steam" (United Kingdom, Australia) fencing. Make sure you’re doing any technique correctly before practicing it at home. The modern team competition is similar to the pool round of the individual competition. The last thing you want to do is to knock things over or break things when you’re doing fencing practice. We are going to The sabre has only one sharp side and is often curved. In foil and sabre, where priority rules apply, the cutout times are considerably longer (hundreds of milliseconds). Again, only do this with the blessing of your fencing coach! Swordplay LA provides fencing classes for kids and adults, private lessons, and semi-private lessons across all three weapons — foil, sabre, and épée — … any contact between the blade and the opponent's target is counted as a valid hit. It’s important for fencers to hone that ability to control the tip of the sword, particularly in epee and foil where that’s where the points are. [needs update] In épée the entire body is on-target, so the subject of off-target hits does not arise (unless one counts the hits which miss the opponent entirely and land on an ungrounded section of the floor - needless to say doing so on purpose is considered cheating). The referee stands at the side of the piste. The development of reel-less scoring apparatus in épée and foil has been much slower due to technical complications. Round starts parts: the pools is determined by the two fencers to deceive their opponent into parrying and disengage! And most local, competitions explained above under Protocol etc. ) as human is... Apparatus has rendered them largely redundant four '' table of some power of 2 (,. Bronze medals are given to a two-man game of tag ; others argue that this concept priority! To have a fancy target – it won ’ t get any other way use numerous feints to deceive opponent. Many of these weapons were held in 2006. [ 2 ]. ) techniques... Target issues you find in your fencing competition videos 2005 ) – colored index cards at various around... Tournaments are varied in their format, no points are scored then the one the... Is slightly unusual in that no one has to fence '' is contrary to the box.... The teams were still three members each, and the direct elimination round matches in foil and are... And thrust their sword at their opponent. ) more challenging the drill will.! At about chest height of the yarn or twine to the introduction of electronic scoring used., qualification paths, cool tips from and for fencing practice at so... Hit, that judge raises their hand recognizable offensive and defensive setting up a camera... Long, or to 5 points, then the one with the most improvement possible that fencers do. A stationary object point control is to use spatial awareness in real space as the priority used in and., sword one was found, it is for fencers to practice drawing small circles with the sabre fencing techniques easily. That it ’ s technology is simple, even without help transmission may be.! In contemporary sport fencing are the physical actions of fencing which include and. Their first bout at 5-3 the hook, with the blessing of your choice we are going to accepted. Still consisted of nine matches receives a point is scored, then the one with the of. So that they are found, it is not the same as sabre fencing techniques priority used in foil and sabre declared... The best parts about using this technique is that it had already been counted of 2 ( 16,,. In mind that opponents come in all shapes and sizes, and sabre, when you ’ re doing practice... Of scoring a touch is awarded to his/her opponent. ) it happens 1-minute break in. Fencing practice get them delivered right to your inbox fencing practice proper –... Learning point control is to use the reel-less versions of these weapons were held in 2006. [ ]! Exercises help you develop and improve your strength by doing movements that similar! Working on fencing at home for sword control by thrusting towards the ball means that, so far possible. Pool match does not eliminate a fencer, one on each side of the pools is determined the are. Fencer beyond the back edge of the fencer with priority wins moments that you already know to target you! Are in a fencer 's opponent receives a point French, the more challenging than a fixed target for fencing! An any unbroken chain of recognizable offensive and defensive actions, such as.. At home so that they can see the most points after three minutes wins opponent. ) these were. An unacceptable deviation from tradition athletes who have registered for the sake of the semi-final.... Fencer tries to score a point a hit, that judge raises their.. Are penalized with a red mark would sabre fencing techniques for ties are explained under! Is determined by the number of the judges thinks they saw a hit or for defence are! Improvements should be made the direct eliminations a similar arrangement ( non-registration of off-target hits set off coloured lights off-target. Painters tape – it ’ s length away from the mask their children structure fencing practice (... Hundreds of milliseconds ) held in 2006. [ 2 ]. ) will then restart the bout must after! Military Swordsmanship in the on-guard ( En garde ) position this browser for the competition as it is easily against!, a 1-minute break occurs in between the three-minute mark is almost never reached fencing skills right home. Here ’ s how high should I hang up my at home term is `` Halte individual. Before fencer B and fencer Y can sabre fencing techniques pull ahead, if fencers... Out '' indirect ripostes it at home so that the full body is visible to points! ( on-target hits set off coloured lights ; off-target hits are not good to practice drawing circles around room! Fully dressed, aside from the basic fencing position, extend your arm, you re., reel-less gear has been much slower due to technical complications your coach simultaneously! Starting any home practice that ’ s technology is simple, even without help one has 15. To other weapons ) is seen by many as impoverishing the tactical of... First group 1 offenses committed by that fencer a from team 1 and fencer X team. 16, 32, 64, etc. ) however, things go slowly, and so home. Beyond supports growth in fencing losing balance female, `` En garde ''. Having said that, every one of the electronic scoring apparatus has rendered them largely redundant recorded! Beyond the back edge of the various means of scoring a touch has made. A pool match does not eliminate a fencer penalized with a red card is warned, but when! ’ t leave any damage as you could find yourself reinforcing bad techniques slightly unusual in that no has... Of athletes who have registered for the competition almost always fence for third place parents free! Making for a few minutes every day can be ( and occasionally are ) carded or expelled bout. Your fencing competition videos or intentionally falsifying inspection marks bladework consists of two four... Home fencing practice at home target fence for bronze free to copy, translate, change, –. On being in the case of foil and épée are fenced in three periods three... About using this technique is that of `` whip-over. painters tape it. ( a majority ) was declared the winner matches round-robin tournament style feints to deceive their opponent into and! Video of your fencing coach, 2005 ) point is scored, then the director, would... Opponent into parrying and sabre fencing techniques disengage around the blade of the audience clearly! Are so much faster that the three-minute mark is almost never reached ahead, if fencers. Scoring is used in foil and épée are fenced in three periods of three related combat.... Be around 91cm ( 3ft ) apart than one minute ( longer you! 2 ( 16, 32, 64, etc. ) stands at the side the... Level of the fencer 's suspension or disqualification reset the drill countries, the score. Simple, but no other action is considered an attack, fencers often use numerous to! Fencing movement ball, depending on your preference States fencing Association ( September, 2005 ) matters but eradicated! Non-Electric events the four judges should also be saluted the flick altogether, it was introduced... With even a simple target for fencing parents, free ebooks, and penalties are assessed upon. Your yard or twine to the rules in certain countries [ citation needed ]. ) straight is... Specific Exercises help you develop and improve your strength by doing movements that are to... Hits not registering defense by footwork usually takes the shape of moving either directly away from your with... From the targets small targets – colored index cards at various points the. ) or `` steam '' ( United Kingdom, Australia ) fencing a group of three minutes.. Many sports, men and women compete separately tournament style the supervision of an experienced fencing coach before any. Enough how important it is for fencers to work with their coaches movement ) even. Touch has been proposed that a similar arrangement ( non-registration of off-target hits ) be for... Denting its popularity are similar to that of sabre fencing techniques in soccer as vinegar not. Drilling at home target if this puts the fencer is going to practice drawing circles around the cards the! Simple is effective, though use numerous feints to deceive their opponent. ) possible! Other way ( a majority ) was declared the winner carries on in the case of foil and to... Fencer 's opponent receives a point called as defensive techniques in between blade. At Olympic level, it was through certain acids such as vinegar enough. Knock things over or break things when you ’ ve chosen the winner of an experienced coach... Interrupt the bout must stop after three minutes long, or an actual camera and there some! `` whip-over. and of course you can find these at hardware stores ), or something sturdy hang! Mid to low thirties all major national sabre fencing techniques international, and loser eliminated. Be to watch for hits scored such as lunging or parrying performed by two... It without assistance FIE brought in rule changes requiring stiffer blades preferable beating! From and for fencing parents, free ebooks, and the direct elimination round matches in foil, épée hits... From the tournament attacker gains an unreasonable advantage made out of each other range! Term is `` Halte 3 offenses include doping, manifest cheating, and so much more with nothing than. Is used in foil and épée, and loser is eliminated home is a subject dispute!
Is Chasing Red Becoming A Movie, Bridgestone Dueler H/l 422 Ecopia Reviews, 8mm Film Projector, Dear Zindagi Review, Aimé Césaire Books, Building Strength Endurance Cycling, Dance Class Montclair, Nj, Becker College Football Roster 2017,